Reconstruction of the faculty
Many people know that the first faculties of Moscow University were medical, philosophical and legal. But not everyone knows that there was also a fourth - Art classes. The classes that appeared with the opening of Moscow University in the middle of the 18th century could not get the name of the faculty, since traditionally in Europe the faculty was an association of researchers who had a scientific subject (theology, philosophy, mathematics, medicine, etc.) and taught it to students. Scientific subject at the Faculty of Arts in 1755-56. was not, but there was a full curriculum and exams. In the Art Classes, students were taught "dancing", drawing, singing, violin playing, harp playing, architectural design and acting. The Academy of the three most notable arts (architecture, sculpture and painting) was opened at the Art classes of Moscow University. The modern Faculty of Arts inherits the tradition of the Art Classes. The idea to recreate it belongs to the rector of Moscow State University, academician V. A. Sadovnichy, who at the opening said that he always felt that the university was lacking something. And on June 23, 2001, an order was signed to open the Faculty of Arts of Moscow State University.
Most likely, in the 18th century, the house belonged to the Romanov boyars. This was their territory, patrimony, "apartment". Not far from here is Romanov Lane. Then the merchant Jacobi rented it out for the apartments of university professors. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the house belonged to the Richters. A detailed plan of the building has been preserved. After World War II, the building was transferred to the university, where the exchange fund (book depository) of the university library was located until the 2000s. When the leadership of the faculty was doing a major overhaul of the building, a lot of interesting things were discovered. On the first floor, an arch was found in the wall - in the 17th-19th centuries it was the main entrance to the courtyard of the building. And in the courtyard they found a real cobblestone pavement. According to the recollections of the professor of Moscow University M. P. Pogodin, in the dance hall (now classes and meetings of the Faculty's Academic Council are held here) "Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol danced."
The building of the Faculty of Arts of Moscow State University on Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street ("House of Jacobi") is "two-layer". If you look at it from the street itself, you can see two floors and a semi-basement. Once this basement (it dates back to the 17th century) was the first floor, while the two floors built above are already in the 18th century. This building is one of the best Moscow examples of early classicism, there are not many of them left in Moscow.
From the history of the building
Art classes at Moscow University are the basis of art education in Russia in the second half of the 18th century. - in a historical perspective, they are a prototype of what was created at the beginning of the 21st century. Faculty of Arts, Moscow University.
The creation of art classes was preceded by the opening of a theater school at the university, in which 22 people studied. In 1756, a university public theater was opened, headed by the famous writer Mikhail Matveyevich Kheraskov.
Art classes of Moscow University opened on June 2, 1757 in the grammar school of raznochintsy and already on June 27, 1757 in the newspaper Moskovskie vedomosti (No. 51) an announcement was placed on inviting actors to the university theater: “For women and girls who have the ability and desire to present theatrical performances, also sing and teach the same to others, appear in the office of the Moscow Imperial University. " January 29, 1759 “at the Russian theater, which opened in Moscow, together with the actors of the Italian comic opera D.-B. Locatelli students of the university took part in the performances ”.
From the art classes of Moscow University, the Academy of the Three Noble Arts, the highest art school in Russia, grew up. The initiator of the creation of the Academy of Arts was the curator of the university I.I.Shuvalov. “Conceived by the thought of Shuvalov, who wanted to establish science in the fatherland along with the arts. The Academy was originally a branch of the University. " On October 23, 1757, Shuvalov presented to the Senate a Report on the establishment of the Academy of Arts, which stated that “you can take a certain number of students capable of the University who are already determined to study languages and sciences belonging to art: they can soon see a good start and success ".
On November 6, 1757, the Decree of the Imp. Elizaveta Petrovna on the establishment of the Academy of the three most distinguished arts. Her seat Petersburg was defined, but until 1764 the Academy was under the jurisdiction of Moscow University. I.I.Shuvalov became the first president of the Academy. In January 1758, the students of the art class were transferred to the Academy of Arts. "Duboulet's class, in which the future artists studied, was transferred with the teacher to St. Petersburg, where the Academy of Arts was already conceived ...".
"In October 1763, at a solemn meeting of the Academy of the Three Noble Arts for the successes achieved in the field of mosaic art, Lomonosov was elected an honorary member." On November 4, 1764, the Academy of Arts was separated from the jurisdiction of Moscow University into an independent educational institution.
Art education in the grammar school of raznochintsy
In 1755, at Moscow University, two gymnasiums were created and functioned until the fire of 1812 - “noble and raznochinskaya: in the first, children of hereditary and personal nobles were to be formed, in the other gymnasium, children of clerical employees, clergy and clergymen, soldiers, merchants, bourgeois, and any other free ranks people, except for serfs ... ".
The grammar school of the raznochintsy mainly served the purpose of teaching “the sciences that belong to art ... The number of such students who were assigned for the arts was 24 on July 2, 1757. They learned to sing from Dunya, draw from Stenglin, instrumental music from Klim Yanovsky, mechanical arts at Schultz "; future artists studied in Duboulet's class. Of the commoners who studied at the Gymnasium, the best “were appointed in order to enter artists in the field of various arts. Actors were to be formed here as well. The famous architect Bazhenov graduated from this Gymnasium, and after that the famous actor Melterschikov ”.
On May 25, 1759, the Italian entrepreneur D.-B. Locatelli enters into an agreement with the university; recruited 18 people, including 2 actors. A little earlier, on January 29, 1759, “in the Russian theater that opened in Moscow, together with the actors of the Italian comic opera D.-B. Locatelli students of the university took part in the performances ”. In 1760, out of 30 university students, 4 assigned themselves to the theater; in excess of the total number of 100 pupils of the gymnasium “18 pupils from the commoners made up the troupe of the Moscow theater and the contents were dependent on Locatelli, who was in charge of the Russian theater and the Italian opera. Of these 18, ten were to study vocal and instrumental music, two theatrical painting and six dances. The university thus had funds for its home theater, which it sometimes treated its visitors to. So, for example, on April 28, 1760, the day of its act, the University invited noble persons and nobility to the Opera House for the Italian interlude. "